Coffee and Tea Training
What is tea
EVERYTHING THAT COMES FROM THE PLANT CAMELLIA SINENSIS IS CATEGORIZED AS TEA!
There are two varieties of this plant that have the most significance to tea production:
Camelia Sinensis ” Sinensis “( with small, sharp leaves) and
Camellia sinensis ” assamica ” ( with large, meaty leaves). Those two are essential for tea production! What is not so well known is that the White, Green, Black, or Oolong teas are produced from Camellia Sinensis! The difference comes from the following:
- Cultivation process
- Region of production
- Production process
To prepare the highest quality teas, only the buds and the first two leaves of the plant are used!
The harvest of those first leaves is called “Imperial Pluck” or “Two leaves and a bud.”
Camellia Sinensis is a plant that contains caffeine; therefore, every cup of tea contains caffeine.
It is good to know that the caffeine in the tea brings a smooth, waking effect to the people who drink it, contrary to the caffeine in the coffee.
What are Herbs
The herbs are often called tea, but this is wrong!
Herbs like Chamomile or peppermint are not made from Camellia Sinensis and therefore are not tea!
This herb liquid should be called “Infusion ” and not tea!.
Most herb brews are caffeine-free with minor exceptions like Mate (Paraguayan tea) and are helpful.
- GREEN TEA: Wither, Fixation, Drying. Tea Processing – After the harvest, the leaves are treated with an influx of heat to stop the oxidation process! This helps the leaves to keep the enzymes they contain! Different regions have different ways to prevent oxidation. In China, the heating process is produced in the pan.
- YELLOW TEA: Wither, Fixation, Piling up, Drying. Tea processing is exactly the same as green tea, but after the heating, you have to leave it to rest rolled up in a clothe or paper. Then we continue with the processing! Flavors: soft, sweet and floral.
- WHITE TEA: Wither, Drying – It’s processing less than all other teas. The leaves/buds are harvested and dried under the sun. It is rich in antioxidants. Flavors: sweet, grassy, delicate.
- OOLONG TEA: Wither, Roll, Oxidation, Fixation, Drying. The oxidation process is started and then stopped at exact times. The leaves are constantly lightly shaken and rubbed. This helps the separated juice to react with the oxygen from the air. By carefully controlling this process, the producers can bring the Oolong tea closer to the Green Tea or the Black Tea.
- BLACK TEA: Wither, Roll, Oxidation, Drying. The leaves are folded so that the juice reacts with the oxygen from the air and achieves complete oxidation. Then they are fixated. Flavors: malt notes, chocolate, caramel. Full body.
- PUERH TEA: Wither, Fixation, Roll, Fermentation
Withering – IT IS A PROCESS IN WHICH THE LEAF BECOMES FLACCID AND LOSES WATER
In the traditional process, fresh leaf is spread by hand in thin layers onto trays or sections of coarse fabric called tats. It is then allowed to wither for 18 to 20 hours, depending upon several factors that include the temperature and humidity of the air and the size and moisture content of the leaf.
Fixation – FIXATION IS ALSO KNOWN AS SHĀQĪNG
It is done to stop oxidation at a certain level. This is accomplished by slightly heating the tea leaves. This deactivates their oxidative enzymes and removes unwanted scents without altering the flavor of the tea.
Drying – it is done to “finish” the tea for sale. This can be done in many ways; however, baking is the most common. At this stage, heat inactivates the polyphenol enzymes and dries the leaf to a moisture content of about 3 percent. It also caramelizes sugars, adds flavors to the finished product, and imparts the black color of fermented tea.
Rolling – The withered leaf is distorted, acquiring the distinctive twist of the finished tea leaf, and leaf cells are burst, resulting in the mixing of enzymes with polyphenols. The traditional method is to roll bunches of leaves between the hands or by hand on a table until the leaf is twisted, evenly coated with juices, and finally broken into pieces.
Oxidation – refers to a series of chemical reactions that result in the browning of tea leaves and the production of flavor and aroma compounds in finished teas. Depending on the type of tea being made, oxidation is either prevented altogether or deliberately initiated, controlled, and then stopped.
Fermentation – THE KEY STEP IN THE PROCESSING OF BLACK TEA
The fermentation of tea leaves alters their chemistry, affecting the organoleptic qualities of the tea made from them. Fermentation affects the smell of the tea and typically mellows its taste, reducing astringency and bitterness while improving mouthfeel and aftertaste.
The tap water in some regions is very hard, and it is recommended to be used filtered water for the tea. Every type of tea has recommended quantities of water and tea leaves for the best test of the product. Essential Notes: A tea bag of high-quality teas could be used a couple of times to prepare a cup of tea. For example: when drinking Oolong in a traditional tea ceremony in England, the first cup of tea is poured away. Then, the guests consume the second dip. The tea leaves are only awakened with the first dip, and they release the perfect flavors with the second dip! Some high-end tea producers recommend that the first dip be around 90 seconds; the second dip be about 60 seconds! To achieve perfection, the teabag should be first dipped in cold water 100ml. Then we should pour the boiling water(250ml) to reach the perfect temperature of 70 degrees Celsius. To achieve 80 degrees Celsius, we use first 80ml cold water and then 250 ml boiling water. To achieve 90 degrees Celsius, we use first 50ml cold water and then 250 ml boiling water.
Important terms in tea service
CHA – means tea in Japanese
Genmaicha – green tea mixed with roasted rice
SENCHA – green tea in Japanese, It is 3/4 of the tea production in Japan SHINCHA (new tea) – this tea is made from the first tea leaves of the year KUKICHA – it is made from the handles of the leaves, and it is very low on caffeine
FIRST FLUSH – the first harvest of the year( Feb – Apr), so-called Imperial Pluck
SECOND FLUSH – the second harvest of the year ( Jun- Jul)
DARJEELING – it is a region in India which gives the name of the tea CYLON – it is the old name of Shri Lanka, one of the important regions of tea
ASAM – it is a region in India
FLUG TEA is called the first and freshest tea of the year. It is delivered with airplanes to the biggest fans of the tea and offers extraordinary taste and flavors!